- (see separate entries for Taiwan and Hong Kong in
the Asia page)
Economy - overview: China's economy during the last quarter century has
changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to
international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly
growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy.
Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized
agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of
prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state
enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the
development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector,
and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally
implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the
sale of equity in China's largest state banks to foreign investors and
refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets in 2005. The
restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have
contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured
on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2006 stood as the
second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita
terms the country is still lower middle-income and 130 million Chinese
fall below international poverty lines. Economic development has
generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and
there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. The
government has struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth for tens of
millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and
new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic
crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related
to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150 million surplus
rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many
subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One demographic
consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the
most rapidly aging countries in the world. Another long-term threat to
growth is the deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution,
soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the
north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and
economic development. China has benefited from a huge expansion in
computer Internet use, with more than 100 million users at the end of
2005. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable
expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth
of urban jobs. In July 2005, China revalued its currency by 2.1% against
the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a
basket of currencies. In 2006 China had the largest current account
surplus - nearly $180 billion - in the world. More power generating
capacity came on line in 2006 as large scale investments were completed.
Thirteen years in construction at a cost of $24 billion, the immense
Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River was essentially completed in
2006 and will revolutionize electrification and flood control in the
area. The 11th Five-Year Program (2006-10), approved by the National
People's Congress in March 2006, calls for a 20% reduction in energy
consumption per unit of GDP by 2010 and an estimated 45% increase in GDP
by 2010. The plan states that conserving resources and protecting the
environment are basic goals, but it lacks details on the policies and
reforms necessary to achieve these goals.
- Library of Congress
Extensive information on the country's history, geography, population,
culture, economy, politics and defence.
- The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Includes information on the history, objectives and organization of the
China Securities Regulatory Commission
News, information on the share market, overseas listings, laws and
- Asiaco -China Government
Including Chinese government departments, embassies, ministries,
politics and law.
- State Economic and Trade Commission
Introduction to the ministers, their functions, organization of the
Commission and its companies.
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Meet China Links China's
products to the world.
- Chinese Business World
Information on the country in general, business and
travel, with details of each province.
- Chinese History and Culture
A pro-Chinese summary of the country's cultural history.
The Internet Guide for China Studies This award winning guide is part of the official Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library and offers an annotated list of Internet sites dealing with Greater China (i.e. PR China, Tibet, Taiwan, Hong Kong,
Provides more than five link pages on education and research, history
and culture, economy and politics, nature and mankind, and tours and
entertainment. From Texas University.
Provides information and links on news, travel, business, culture,
government and medicine.
China-related links, many with annotations.
Categories in Chinese and English.
Corner You can't miss Chinese
culinary arts when you study Chinese culture.
Chinese myths and fantasies Ancient
Chinese myths and fantasies.
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China much like Yahoo!, but tailor-made
for Chinese users.
Decision Making in China by Quanyu
W. Leonard, Chen
Culture Shock!: China
by Kevin Sinclair (Editor), Iris Po-Yee Wong, Iris W. Po-Yee (Editor)
Part of the useful series on culture shock, a good
introduction and a well presented series for a first impression of another
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Countries with their own PeopleGoingGlobal
pages, many more to come.
China Denmark England
Mexico Netherlands New-Zealand
Countries without their own PeopleGoingGlobal
pages can be found in the continent they belong to.
& Oceania Europe